Tuesday, April 8, 2014


Motivational Appeals
  • The difference between emotionally motivating and manipulating:
    • Motivating
      • When the emotion is sincerely shared between the speaker and the audience
      • When there is a balance between emotional and logical appeal
      • When moral issues are taken up that are centrally relevant to the argument of the speech
    • Manipulating
      • When the speaker “tacks on” an emotional veil to hook his/her audience
      • When the audience can perceive that a speaker is playing on it’s emotions
      • When a moral issue is illustrated as a means of “tokenism” - a superficial gesture meant only to gain the allegiance of certain groups and identities.

    Crafting Your Speech
    • Modes of Delivery
    • Extemporaneous - use of outline
    • Impromptu - draft first and last sentences
    • Manuscript/Scripted Speeches - less room for error
    • Memorized - most prep, but least amount of stress during the speech
    • You can blend these styles - for example if one particular sentence only works if worded in a very specific way, you can script the one sentence and include it in the outline.
    • Written versus oral - this is why it is important to practice. Written style sometimes doesn’t feel right when spoken aloud.

    Intro to Speech Ethics
    • Listening and Ethics
      • No decision a speaker makes is politically or morally neutral. When you speak, you are by default editing by choosing what to say and what not to say; you are therefore issuing value and importance to various topics.
      • Be aware of your own personal/cultural/political biases. We all have frameworks that we use to make sense of the world.

    • Determine your intentions: are your intentions to teach, or to learn?
    • Determine your vantage point: where does your cultural perspective differ from the perspective you are performing?
    • Be open to criticism
    • Predict what, if any, outcomes may be harmful, or perceived as harmful by members of the cultural perspective you are presenting
    Code of Conduct for Peer Critiques: Together, we will create a living document that can be added or amended throughout the quarter. It should act as a blueprint for the best practices in BOTH giving AND receiving feedback.

    Group Exercise: 3-4 people in each group

    • As a group, choose a person to tribute or eulogize. They can be alive, departed, real or fictional.
    • Craft a SHORT (3 min) speech that uses the following language devices listed on 173-174:
      • One use of simile
      • One use of metaphor
      • One use of personification
      • One use of hyperbole
      • One use of repetition
      • One use of a rhetorical question (a question that you answer yourself, or whose answer is self-evident)
      • Check to be sure your speech is devoid of cliches

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