- The difference between emotionally motivating and manipulating:
- When the emotion is sincerely shared between the speaker and the audience
- When there is a balance between emotional and logical appeal
- When moral issues are taken up that are centrally relevant to the argument of the speech
- When the speaker “tacks on” an emotional veil to hook his/her audience
- When the audience can perceive that a speaker is playing on it’s emotions
- When a moral issue is illustrated as a means of “tokenism” - a superficial gesture meant only to gain the allegiance of certain groups and identities.
Crafting Your Speech
- Modes of Delivery
- Extemporaneous - use of outline
- Impromptu - draft first and last sentences
- Manuscript/Scripted Speeches - less room for error
- Memorized - most prep, but least amount of stress during the speech
- You can blend these styles - for example if one particular sentence only works if worded in a very specific way, you can script the one sentence and include it in the outline.
- Written versus oral - this is why it is important to practice. Written style sometimes doesn’t feel right when spoken aloud.
Intro to Speech Ethics
- Listening and Ethics
- No decision a speaker makes is politically or morally neutral. When you speak, you are by default editing by choosing what to say and what not to say; you are therefore issuing value and importance to various topics.
- Be aware of your own personal/cultural/political biases. We all have frameworks that we use to make sense of the world.
- Determine your intentions: are your intentions to teach, or to learn?
- Determine your vantage point: where does your cultural perspective differ from the perspective you are performing?
- Be open to criticism
- Predict what, if any, outcomes may be harmful, or perceived as harmful by members of the cultural perspective you are presenting
Group Exercise: 3-4 people in each group
- As a group, choose a person to tribute or eulogize. They can be alive, departed, real or fictional.
- Craft a SHORT (3 min) speech that uses the following language devices listed on 173-174:
- One use of simile
- One use of metaphor
- One use of personification
- One use of hyperbole
- One use of repetition
- One use of a rhetorical question (a question that you answer yourself, or whose answer is self-evident)
- Check to be sure your speech is devoid of cliches